The default web browser in iOS can be changed by a free jailbreak tweak called Browser Changer. It also allows you to open the Home Screen Shortcuts with the browser of your choice. Browser Changer can be found in BigBoss repo. See the Browser Changer in action:
- Launch Safari and bookmark any webpage you like.
- Open Safari bookmarks, tap Edit button.
- Rename it to "Open in Chrome" or any name you want.
This bookmark will open the current page you are visiting in Safari with Chrome. Not the best solution but definitely come in handy on non-jailbroken devices. For your information, the Home Screen Shortcuts won't work because the URL can't be customized.